Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2013;3(4):247-254

Original Article
Publication trends in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging 1991-2011: a
retrospective observational study

Sobia Mujtaba, Jessica M Peña, Mohan Pamerla, Cynthia C Taub

Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461-1138 USA; Jack D Weiler Hospital, The Albert
Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461-2372, USA

Received August 5, 2013; Accepted September 27, 2013; Epub November 1, 2013; Published November 15, 2013

Abstract: The last twenty years have seen an explosive growth in cardiovascular disease research. The purpose of our
study was to evaluate the characteristics of published research in the field of non-invasive cardiovascular imaging
research from 1991-2011. Our aims were to determine: (1) the origin of the studies (international or from the U.S.) (2)
differences in funding sources for U.S. publications and (3) if there has been an evolving trend pertaining to the mode of
imaging. We evaluated characteristics of original research articles from Circulation, Circulation cardiovascular imaging,
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC), Journal of the American College of Cardiology cardiovascular
imaging, Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine for the years 1991-91,
2001-02 and 2010-11. To establish trends for contributions for U.S. based studies and proportions of U.S. based studies
receiving NIH funding in the study period, data was compared using a chi-square test. A two sided p value of less than or
equal to 0.05 was used as the threshold for significance. Differences in modes of imaging under study were made by
comparing average number of publications between the data sets in the study period using a t-test analysis. A total of 5431
studies were reviewed; 594 studies were selected as per the standardized abstraction criteria. U.S. based publications
outnumbered international publications; its’ share declined from 77% in 1991-92 to 57% in 2010-2011 (p<0.0001).
Funding for U.S. publications by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) remained static (1991-92: 40%; 2001-02: 49%; 2010-
11: 42%). A decline was seen in the investigation of echocardiography (47%, p=0.44); cardiac computed tomography and
cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies grew 6.5 times (p=0.002) and 7-fold (p=0.01) respectively. Nuclear
cardiology imaging fell by more than 50% (p=0.02). The last twenty years have seen a globalization of research in non-
invasive cardiovascular imaging with a shift in focus towards investigation of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The
decline in U.S. based publications coupled with a stasis in NIH funding may call for increased federal support for non-
invasive imaging research. (AJCD1308003).

Keywords: Cardiac, imaging, cardiovascular research, National Institutes of Health, funding, diagnostic techniques,
echocardiography, Doppler, MRI, computed tomography

Address correspondence to: Dr. Cynthia C Taub, Non-invasive Cardiology, Jack D Weiler Hospital, The Albert Einstein
College of Medicine, 1825 Eastchester Road, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Tel: 1-718-904-2779; Fax: 1-718-904-2675; E-mail:
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